Ancient Agora Ko
In antiquity, the agora (forum) of every city was its commercial and social centre. The ancient Agora of Kos is among the largest to have been excavated in Greece to this date. Originally it was built during the 4th century B.C. near the city’s port. After 366 B.C. when the city of Kos was recognized as an important administrative center, important public and religious buildings were constructed in the area of the port and of the Agora. The latter was the financial heart of the island, with streets, workshops, shops and altars that consitute the “traditional” image of an ancient agora. The archaeological site was excavated by the Italian Archaeological School, during the reconstruction of the city, after the destructive earthquake of 1933. The Agora had trhee main gates (eastern, western, northern). The roads from the three gates convergedin the center in a large internal courtyard. The northern gate connected the Agora with the city walls, while the other two hosted a number of shops tending to the citizens’ everyday needs.
The sanctuary of Asclepios
The Asclepieion of Kos is built upon the slopes of hill clothed in lush flora and graced with beautiful views of the sea and the Turkish coast. It is the most important monument of the island and of the most important temples of its kind of antiquity. In the ancient times it was the place of worship of the god Asclepius, healing grounds for the ill and a school for the study of medicine. Hippocrates, one of the greatest exemplars of the medical profession taught in the school that he instituted within the sanctuary area. In contrast to the more arcane sanctum of Asclepius in Epidaurus, its counterpart in Kos Island cultivated scientific medicine. The Asclepieion of Kos, whose surviving ruins are dated to the 4th century B.C, is located 3.4 kilometers northwest of the city. The three successive terraces are dated to the Hellenistic years; their specific oriental style was probably adopted after Alexander’s conquests.
Castle of Kefalos
As one enters the village of Kefalos, one can see the remains of the local Castle. The castle was built of small stones and inside it contained many water reservoirs. The Kefalos castle is dated back to the Byzantine era. The oldest reference to the castle is dated to 1271. In 1457 tha castle was used in a successful attempt to defend the island from a Turkish invasion. In 1493 and after a destructive earthquake, the castle was almost totally destroyed. As a result, by 1505 the castle had been abandoned. Today from the deserted ruins, the visitor can enjoy great panoramic views of the bay of Kefalos.
Traditional Mill in Antimachia
This traditional flourmill is located on the main square of the village of Antimachia, close to the airport of Kos, approximately 22 kilometers from the town of Kos. On the same square, one can visit the exhibition of the traditional house of Antimachia, the local folk museum.
Fortress of Neratzia Bridge
The bridge of the Castle of Neratzia that connects the Plain Tree Square with the enstrance to the Castle. The castle pf Neratzia on the seafront of the city of Kos was built duiring the Knighthood period of the island. A bridge used to connect the inner with the outer yard of the castle, over the ditch that connected the sea of the port with the eastern sea side of the castle. This bridge has survived to this dat and today it connects the square of the Plain Tree with the entrance to the Castle, over the picturesque Palm tree boulevard.
Castle of Neratzia
The castle of Kos, better known as the castle of Nerantzia (castle of the sour orange tree), is the most important part of the fortifications constructed on the island by the Knights Templar at the end of the 14th century A.D. It ows its name to the many sour orange trees that were planted in Kos during the late years of the 14th century and the early years of the 15th century, when the whole city came to be called by this name. The castle consists of two fortified curtain walls. The inner curtain wall is the oldest. It is rectangular shaped and on its corners boasts 4 high towers. A wide moat (ditch) seperates the two curtain walls which are connected only by a single inclined road on the eastern side of the castle.